Functional Anatomy by Joint Action & Exercise: Upper Body

by Brent Brookbush DPT, PT, MS, PES, CES, CSCS, ACSM H/FS

Scapula:

Elevation (frontal plane)

Depression (frontal plane)

Upward Rotation (frontal plane)

Downward Rotation (frontal plane)

Protraction (transverse plane)

Retraction (transverse plane)

Anterior Tipping (sagittal plane)

 

Posterior Tipping (sagittal plane)

Shoulder:

Shoulder Flexion (sagittal plane)

 

Shoulder Extension (sagittal plane)

 

Shoulder Adduction (frontal plane)

Shoulder Abduction (frontal plane)

 

Horizontal Flexion/Adduction (transverse plane)

 

Horizontal Extension/Abduction (transverse plane)

 

 

Shoulder External Rotation (transverse plane)

 

Shoulder Internal Rotation (transverse plane)

Elbow:

Elbow Flexion (sagittal plane)

  • Brachioradialis
  • Brachialis
  • Biceps Brachii

 

Elbow Extension (sagittal plane)

  • Triceps (all heads)

 

Radioulnar Supination (transverse plane)

  • Supinator
  • Biceps Brachii
  • Brachioradialis

Radioulnar Pronation (transverse plane)

  • Pronator Teres
  • Pronator Quadratus

 

Functional Anatomy of Common Upper Body Exercises:

Exercise: Reverse Fly
Plane:  Transverse
Joint ActionMuscles
ShoulderHorizontal AbductionPosterior Deltoid
ScapulaRetractionMiddle Trapezius, Rhomboids

 

Exercise: Chest Fly
Plane: Transverse
Joint ActionMuscles
ShoulderHorizontal AdductionPectoralis Major, Anterior Deltoid
ScapulaProtractionPectoralis Minor, Serratus Anterior

 

Exercise: Close Grip Row
Plane: Sagittal
Joint ActionMuscles
ShoulderExtensionLatissimus Dorsi, Teres MajorPosterior Deltoid, (Long head of triceps)
ScapulaRetractionMiddle Trapezius, Rhomboids
ElbowFlexionBrachialis, Biceps Brachii, Brachioradialis

Exercise: Overhead Press
Plane:  Frontal
Joint ActionMuscles
ShoulderAbductionDeltoids
ScapulaUpward RotationUpper Trapezius, Serratus Anterior
ElbowExtensionTriceps (All