For an introduction to Special Tests including definitions of specific terminology, what special tests measure, how we chose the tests in these lessons, and best use, check out:

Special Tests Covered in this Lesson:


The special tests for upper cervical spine instability and vertebrobasilar ischemia (VBI) are under studied. Many questions are unanswered regarding the reliability, specificity, sensitivity and validity of these tests. Based on the criteria described in Special Tests: Introduction some of these tests would not be included in this course; however, some organizations have called for these tests to be mandatory for the pre-screening of any patient who will receive high velocity cervical manipulations as part of a treatment plan (10, 11).

  • The argument in favor of using these tests is focused on the potentially serious consequences of upper cervical instability