Independent variable - in research, this is the variable or phenomenon being manipulated in the study.
- Example, in the study by Ghanbari et al. (1), the independent variable is "knee joint mobilization", the dependent variable is "quadriceps muscle strength."
- Ghanbari A. and Kamalgharibi S. (2013). Effect of knee joint mobilization on quadriceps muscle strength. International Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences. 2(4): 186-191