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Tone

Tone is generally thought of as having two components:
  • Intrinsic - resistance to stretch in resting muscle.
  • Neuromotor - the readiness with which the nervous system activates muscle in response to stimuli.
Example, tone is an inherent quality of muscle that may be felt as "tissue resistance" during a variety of manual techniques.
  1. Ng, J. K. F., Richardson, C. A., Kippers, V., & Parnianpour, M. (1998). Relationship between muscle fiber composition and functional capacity of back muscles in healthy subjects and patients with back pain. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 27(6), 389-402.
  2. Simons, D. G., & Mense, S. (1998). Understanding and measurement of muscle tone as related to clinical muscle pain. Pain, 75(1), 1-17.