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Anatomical Position and Anatomical Direction: Video #1 of Introduction to Functional Anatomy

Anatomical Position: Anatomical Position is the standard position for anatomical references, in which the body is erect and the arms are at the side of the torso with the palms and thumbs facing forward.Anatomical Direction: Anatomical Direction refers to the different directional planes in which body movement can occur. These planes are sagittal, frontal, and transverse. The definition of these planes and how they interact with anatomical structures is discussed in this video.

Transcript

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So we're going to go over anatomical
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positions, anatomical directions,
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anatomical planes. We're going to go over a whole lot of vocab in the beginning.
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What you first need to realize is that functional anatomy more than anything is
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just a language and like learning any language, at first, it's not going to make
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any sense. And then as you get more words together, you start seeing how everything
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fits and you start realizing that there's a logic behind anatomy. Hopefully
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by the end of the day you are going to start to put some big groups of
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pieces together and you'll be like, "Oh yeah," this isn't just a bunch of random
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words in Latin. Let's start with anatomical position. Everybody stand
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up. Everybody stand in the anatomical position. Oh yeah, so that's eyes facing
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forward, I don't know why they have to specify eyes but they do. Palms forward,
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feet forward. Is this ideal posture? No, obviously we do not walk around with
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our palms forward. It would be a little weird and I hope you use your eyes to track more
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than the things directly in front of you. But what is anatomical position good for?
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It's a reference point. So when we start talking about muscles, at least initially,
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you got to learn joint actions, you have heard the term
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joint actions before? So when we talk about joint actions, what joint
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action a muscle will cause, we're generally talking about from this position,
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initially. Does that make sense? When we talk about something called anatomical
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directions, we're generally referring to where something is based on your body
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being in anatomical position. Does that make sense? Everybody one more time, show
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me anatomical position. Engrain it in your mind, etch it, laser it, build an
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app for it, something. Next, you can go ahead and sit.
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Anatomical directions, how many of you have heard of anatomical directions
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before? How many you have heard of directions before? How many of you guys
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have given directions before? How many of you just gave up and went GPS? No?
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All right so directions, we need directions in the human body just like
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we need directions to get someplace. We just use a little different words.
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Let's start with the first two. Each one of these is in pairs. We got superior
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and inferior. Well if I tell you that your boss is superior to you, what does
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that mean? Above and in the human body, superior means the same thing. Superior
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means above. If you hire on an intern and you're the boss your intern is what?
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Inferior to you, which means below. Probably not a good thing to tell your
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intern, that's not going to help their confidence any. But you get
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superior versus inferior? Superior might be in this direction,
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inferior is going to be in this direction, generally if we're talking
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from the anatomical position. We're going to play a little game here in a second.
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Medial versus lateral. What does medial sound like? Middle, so where would the
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middle of your body be? Yeah, directly down the center line. What about
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lateral, what do you do that has the word lateral in it? Raise your
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arm. How many you guys who do lateral raises? Nobody's done a lateral raise? I
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don't have that many gym rats in here yet? Some lateral raises for your
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shoulders. Lateral raises are in which direction? Towards the outside, so
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lateral is the opposite of medial and is toward the outside. Anterior
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and posterior. Anybody ever been told to sit on their posterior? Has anybody ever
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been told that? Good. I'm glad I wasn't the only one growing up, "Sit on your
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posterior." Where's your posterior? Your backside.
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So what do you think anterior means? Front. Anterior and posterior delt.
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Where's your anterior delt? Everybody touch your anterior delt. Palpate.
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Everybody knows what the definition of palpate is? To touch in a professional
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manner. Posterior delt is where? Everybody palpate their posterior delt.
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Good good good good good. These are probably the tricky ones: proximal and
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distal. How many of you have heard these terms before? Proximal.
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What does that word sound like? Proximity. Proximity means what? Close. Now the
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question is close to what? What are we talking about being close to? Well, in the
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human body, it's the trunk. You can think of putting a little bull's eye right
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here, right over your bellybutton. All right so it's in proximity to this. Now
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distal sounds like what word? Distance, so now we got to think what's the furthest
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distance from this proximal point? What would be the first farthest things from
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this? Fingers and toes. You almost have to think of proximal and distal
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as if your body was like this. That make sense? Then we have supine and prone.
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You know these? Supine, face or palm up when lying on back. The way
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I was taught how to remember this is if you hold a bowl of
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soup right you are supine and then if you pro it out... oh it's only going to get
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cheesier. I know that was bad right. Wasn't it? All right so everybody supine,
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pro. Good all right so everybody's got their anatomical directions. Think
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you got this? All right stand up, because now we get to play a really fun
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game. It's called "Brent Says." It's why I think it's a fun game. Why
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are we going to play "Brent Says?" Because actually it's really annoying to say
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"Simon Says" after every direction that I give you. So here's what I want you
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to do. Touch the posterior aspect of your head. Good. Touch the anterior aspect of
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your head. Good so now we're on your face. Let's let's do the
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lateral aspect of your face. Good. Didn't get anybody yet. Medial aspect of your
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face, your nose would be medial. Could you have touched here too? Yeah that's still
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mid-line. What about here? All right so we all got we got medial down. Good let's do
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the superior portion of your face.
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Proximal portion of your face. Oh got you got you, where's proximal portion of your
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face? What's proximal mean? Closer to the torso right? So this would be the
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proximal portion of your face. What would be the inferior portion of your face?
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Same spot. Same spot. What would be the distal portion of your face?
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Let's mix this up a little bit, let's mix this up. What do I got for you?
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Let's do...medial trunk. Good.
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Superior shoulder. Posterior thigh. Anybody else feel like they're playing
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anatomy twister. I just kind of realized that. We need a
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little spin thing. All right let's do lateral trunk. Let's do proximal arm.
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Yeah so it'd be your proximal arm, your shoulder. Let's do distal arm. Anterior thigh.
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Let's do inferior shoulder. Got a couple of you. I started mixing up the
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pairs and I got a couple of you already. How you doing though, you still
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getting it? Should we really take it up a notch? How many of you guys are ready for
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groupings? You ready for groupings? Touch your, you can think about
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this one for a second, remember this ain't Jeopardy. No points for answering first.
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Where's your anterolateral, anterior and lateral, trunk? Yeah so I'd be referring
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to anything here. Anterolateral. All right let's do posteromedial head.
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Everybody feel that bump on the back of their head? You ready for a fancy
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word? It's called your external occipital protuberance. Right there, got that?
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Anybody know what muscle inserts into that? None nobody? Your traps, they come to your
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external occipital protuberance, that's just a little prelude to what's to come.
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Let's do, oh I like this one let's do the dorsal, did I explain dorsal?
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I didn't explain dorsal, how did I not explained dorsal? So I told you you
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got anterior and posterior. Occasionally, you are going to hear
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reference to other anatomical directions, like ventral or dorsal. Ventral generally
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means forward, dorsal what does that word sound like? You know a word that has
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dorsal in it. Dorsal fin. Like on a shark, like jaws right like the dorsal
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fin - tun tun tun tun tun. You got the dorsal fin, where is that located on
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an animal? Back or top surface. Or you'll also hear dorsal
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referred to as like the top surface of something, like your foot.
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I gave away the next one but I'm going to still make
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you do it anyway. I want you to touch the dorsal aspect of your distal,
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everybody still with me, lower extremity.
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You can immediately tell who has flexible hamstrings in this room because
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about two-thirds of you went like this and then by a third of you went, "Screw
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that!" All right let's do the posterior and proximal aspects, posterior proximal
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aspect of your lower extremity. That's right, I got you all palpating your
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glutes, what? We'll find out later why the glutes are my favorite muscle.
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It's true, it's true. There's a big functional reason for that. All right you
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can sit. You think you got anatomical directions down a little bit?