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Overhead Squat Assessment 2 - Signs of Dysfunction

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An overhead squat assessment is designed to identify any physical signs of dysfunction in athletes and other individuals participating in physical activities. This assessment involves the use of an overhead squat assessment while performing a variety of movements in order to assess symmetry, motor control, joint mobility, muscle activation, and overall balance. During this assessment the individual is required to position themselves with a barbell overhead, and then perform a series of squats. During this assessment, the individual is observed for any signs of pain, instability,

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Transcript

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This is Brent coming at you with our
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In this video, we're going to go over the signs, that we're likely to see during an
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overhead squad assessment. I have a feeling this is where a lot of people
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tend to get a little overwhelmed. They have a tendency to think that things are
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really complex but the truth of the matter is... is there's only, a fairly small
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set of dysfunctions that we are likely to see, in the overhead squad assessment.
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And once we systemized those, we break them down by joint action and we list
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them. I think you guys will find that the overhead squat assessment is actually
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fairly simple. At the feet, we only have two sides. We have feet flatten or feet
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turn out. At the lumbo-pelvic hip complex, we have an anterior pelvic tilt. Now, I
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know some of you guys have a little bit of a hard time seeing an anterior pelvic
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tilt. That's cool. What you're probably more likely to see is low back arch,
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which would be the same thing or that excessive lordosis. Excessive forward
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lean. An excessive forward lean, is that very, very far tilt and I'll show you
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guys how to look for that. We'll look at something called tibia torso angle.
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Asymmetric weight shift we'll look at from the back, I know some of you guys
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have already seen that winking or that sliding when you have somebody do a
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squat. At the knees, we're only likely to see them either bow in or bow out. That's
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the only things we're looking for. And then at the shoulders, do the arms fall
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or does the shoulder girdle elevate? Guys, these are all of the signs that
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we are likely to see for the overhead squat assessment. I will talk about some
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that are a little less common that you might see occasionally in future videos.
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This is the first layer of the onion, once we get this down you guys will
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actually be able to start creating some very powerful corrective exercise
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programs. I'm going to have my friend Leanne come out, she's going to help me
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demonstrate each one of these signs so you guys know exactly what you're
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looking for.
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So first things first let's look at feet flat. Now
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first role of the overhead squat assessment, I showed you guys how to set
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up the overhead squat assessment in the previous video. If you notice that
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somebody's feet are flat when they start you can go ahead and check that box. I'm
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not looking for necessarily more flattening when they're doing the
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overhead squat assessment, if they can't get into proper position to begin with,
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they have that sign. Now Leanne when it comes to feet flat actually does have
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flat feet to start with, that's a functional flat foot, but she's going to
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fake it for us, she's going to go ahead and throw her arms up, and what you guys
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would see is as she goes down into the squat, she would lose this space right
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here. So you, and come back up for me, alright make you a little arch, she
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should be able to keep her her metatarsal head here, her cuneiform, her
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navicular, these should not be on the floor. If they collapse and fall on the floor
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and you guys watch that space disappear at the medial arch, you're going to go
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ahead and check feet flattened. Now the next sign she's going to show us is feet
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turnout. Now if you guys remember from our previous video, second toe pointing
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forward all right, at hip width which is going to be just underneath our ASIS, is
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going to be parallel, all we want to see is does she go big toe forward or
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further because that would be a sign of feet turnout. Go ahead and squat down for
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me, let's see that, and Leanne turns into feet turn out very easily because this
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is part of her common compensation pattern. So go ahead and do that one more
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time and show them, and we got feet turnout.
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Alright if I was doing Leanne's assessment right now I just check feet
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turnout. So now let's look at the knees, her patella right, right here should
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track over her second and third toe assuming that her feet are parallel.
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So if she had knees bow in, so let's go ahead and demonstrate knees bow in, right
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you'd see this little collapse inward. You notice now her knees are not in line
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with this imaginary line between second and third toe and her ASIS.
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A little more rare is to see the knees bow out, all right there you go knees bow
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out, and usually what happens guys is you'll see actually the patella it'll
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track over about the pinky toe. I know that doesn't seem like much, but anything
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outside of optimal is potential dysfunction that we could work on and
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gain a little bit of performance from. Now after we get through those signs we
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need to go ahead and go to a lateral view to see the lumbo-pelvic hip complex.
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The first one I'm going to have our show is actually the excessive forward lean,
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which I know confuses some people. The excessive forward lean is based on the
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tibia and torso should create parallel lines at the bottom of her squat. So I'm
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going to have Leanne go ahead and do the overhead squat and pause at the bottom.
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Alright and what I'm going to do is using these bars if I line a bar up with
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her tibia there, so that's that's that line, and then you guys can see if I line
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this up, her tibia and torso angles actually cross which means they are not
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parallel by definition, she's bending forward too far so that would be our
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excessive forward lean.
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Go ahead and turn posterior From the posterior view we might see an
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asymmetrical weight shift. I know a lot of you guys this intimidates you, it's not
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an easy thing but we will go over corrections in a future video, but if you
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see go ahead and let's demonstrate that Leanne, what you guys will notice is her
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pelvis and her backside will actually shift away from the center of her base
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of support, being her feet here. Alright so let's show that one more time,
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and that would be asymmetrical weight shift -right. Now the last thing we're
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going to look at is the arms, you guys have probably seen a lot of the arms
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fall, her arms should maintain parallel to her ears, covering her ears
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essentially. If she can't now this is one of those signs where you will often see
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people not be able to get there; if I got hurt here and I went arms up and that's
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as high she can get, you guys can go ahead and check arms fall forward. I
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don't need them to fall more forward as she does the squat, this is arms fall
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forward. Now we're going to go ahead and have her start here and then demonstrate
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what arms fall forward during the squat would look like, so go ahead, and that
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would be a very common look to that. It doesn't have to be a lot, just in front
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of the ears. Let's try one more,
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good, and then turn around let me have you actually back to the camera, and
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we'll show shoulders elevate. Now when shoulders elevate what you guys are
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actually looking for is does this scapula area start to elevate towards
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the ears. Now once again you've got to make sure that they started out
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depressed, if they started out elevated you can go ahead and check it off, but
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make sure they started depressed during their squat, and then go ahead have them
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do the overhead squat, and see if those shoulders don't end up right up next to
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their ears like Leanne is demonstrating perfectly. Alright so those are the
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common signs you guys are likely to see. Now we broke it down per joint segment,
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the only thing that you're going to see a little different on your template is
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that it's broken down
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per view,
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and there's a reason for this; all right so any assessment that we do we want to
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increase reliability. We want to make sure that we are accurate as possible. So
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certain signs we're only going to see in certain views. We need to make sure that
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every time we do this overhead squat assessment that we are looking for those
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signs in order, in a particular way to ensure that every time we do this test
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it's the same. So from an anterior view I'm going to look for feet flattened,
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feet turnout, knees bow in, knees bow out, or arms fall. An anterior view is not a
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great place for example to see a asymmetrical weight shift, that's better
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seen in a posterior view. After I go through my anterior view, I'm going to go
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to a lateral view and I'm going to look for my excessive forward lean, my low
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back arch, my abdominal distension potentially, that's that ABS falling out
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that I talked about in the previous video, or once again arms fall. I'm not
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going to be looking at the feet in my lateral view, chances are that an angle
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from the side is going to kind of play tricks on me on what I'm actually seeing,
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and then I'm going to go to posterior view to see shoulder girdle and an
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asymmetric weight shift. So all you guys are doing is taking the signs that are
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common during an overhead squat, and then flipping them so that we can easily get
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through an assessment. Then after you're done with your assessment and you can
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sit down and think about it, you can bring these back to the joint that you
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actually think you're seeing dysfunction at; and in future videos I'm going to go
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ahead and show you guys how to break down each dysfunction one by one and
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create a corrective exercise strategy. Now a couple things that I get asked
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about a lot, these are signs that don't actually exist but you're going to see
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them. So let me explain occasionally, actually let me have Leanne
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come out here.
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You're going to see somebody not feet flattened, but you're going to think
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you're seeing foot inversion, or an increase in that medial arch. I can
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honestly tell you guys this almost never ever happens, if you see this during your
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overhead squat assessment you're probably not seeing inversion you're
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probably seeing a sticky shoe, or a sticky sock, or a sticky foot on a sticky
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floor; the person's feet are actually trying to turn out but from the friction
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of the bottom of their foot in the floor on these two surfaces, they're actually
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just starting to roll out because they can they can't slide. You guys notice I
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have her in socks on a wood floor, really really hard to hide foot foot turnout
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socks on a wood floor, I would suggest this if you can find it. Another sign
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that you guys will see, go ahead and turn sideways is occasional, I don't know if
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you're going to be able to demonstrate this because it's not your compensation,
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but occasionally you'll see people going to an overhead squat, they'll go really
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deep and they'll tilt under, sorry tilt under at the bottom, Leanne doesn't do it at
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all, but you guys will see this where they all of a sudden they get to the
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bottom they do this thing, that's not a postural dysfunction they've just
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reached the end of their hip flexion range of motion. If you were to try to
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correct that posterior pelvic tilt you're seeing at the bottom,
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you're not going to get anywhere. The other thing I get asked about a lot is
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hands, so when I throw my hands up do the hand face in or do they face
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forward, and my answer to you is more or less it doesn't matter. All right this is
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actually radial ulnar joint motion, pronation and supination, not shoulder
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motion. The other thing I get asked about a lot is why is the head in the
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assessment, there's a couple reasons, I know a lot of personal trainers out
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there are using this assessment, and we don't get enough education on how to
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correct dysfunction at the neck, so that's reason number one we don't want
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to start looking at dysfunctions that we're actually not capable of correcting.
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Number two, an overhead squat assessment is probably not the best assessment
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for determining how we're going to correct cervical dysfunction, and we'll
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get into that into later videos. So there you guys go, those are the signs that
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don't actually exist. There is a couple signs that we will see occasionally like
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an inadequate forward lean, or a posterior pelvic tilt which I'll explain
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in much much later videos. Guys the first layer of the onion, I like that analogy
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right, we got the first layer and then as we get deeper and deeper and deeper.
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We'll add more and more pieces, but this is the first layer, you guys got to get
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this down. It's only what ten signs here, roughly ten, twelve signs, once you guys
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have these memorized, you're good at identifying them, you'll be able to build
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upon this in a way that helps you create corrective exercise programs that are
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more effective than you can even imagine, which is going to increase performance
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and decrease your risk of injury. I hope you guys enjoyed this video, I look