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Case-control Study

Case-control Study - a particular form of retrospective study that samples a matched group of people who have, and do not have the outcome being studied. A case-control study is a quasi-experimental design, often used in medicine to aid in determining potential contributing factors (cannot determine causality). In this study type exposure is the dependent variable and outcome is independent.
  • Example, in this retrospective case-control, medical records were investigated for trends correlated with cervical pain (1).
    1. Mäkela, M., Heliövaara, M., Sievers, K., Impivaara, O., Knekt, P., & Aromaa, A. (1991). Prevalence, determinants, and consequences of chronic neck pain in Finland. American journal of epidemiology134(11), 1356-1367.