Dependent Variable

Dependent variable - in research, this is the variable that is changed by the independent variable, most often this is the "outcome" of the study.
  • Example, in the study by Cleland et al. (1), the independent variable is "thoracic manipulation," and the dependent variable is "lower trapezius muscle strength."
  1. Cleland J, Selleck B, Stowell T, Brown L, Alberini S, St. Cyr H, Caron T. Short-term Effects of Thoracic Manipulation on Lower Trapezius Muscle Strength.  Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy. 2004; 12(2): 82-90

Related Terms

  • independent variable
  • control variable
  • experimental design
  • research methodology
  • statistical analysis


  • dependent variables
  • Dependent variable
  • (dependent variable)