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Independent variable

Independent variable - in research, this is the variable or phenomenon being manipulated in the study.
  • Example, in the study by Ghanbari et al. (1), the independent variable is "knee joint mobilization", the dependent variable is "quadriceps muscle strength."
  1. Ghanbari A. and Kamalgharibi S. (2013). Effect of knee joint mobilization on quadriceps muscle strength. International Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences. 2(4): 186-191