For an introduction to goniometric assessment including definitions of specific terminology, defining a "good assessment," discussion on what goniometry measures and best use, check out: Introduction to Goniometry

A list of potential restricting structures and links to articles on techniques specific to those structures is included below. The lists were compiled using various texts (1 - 8), clinical outcomes, and predictive models of postural dysfunction in an attempt to consider all of the muscular, articular, fascial and neural structures that may restrict each motion.

Printable PDF - Assessment Template

Shoulder External Rotation (1-2, 9-16, 20-21)

Shoulder External Rotation

Firm End Feel

90 - 95° PROM

Fulcrum: Olecranon Process Movement Arm: Olecranon process to styloid process of ulna Stability Arm: Vertical or horizontal