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The rhomboid major and rhomboid minor muscle
2 Credits

Rhomboids

Integrated functional anatomy of the rhomboids. Attachments, nerves, palpation, joint actions, arthrokinematics, fascia, triggerpoints, and behavior in postural dysfunction. Examples of common strengthening exercises, foam rolling, mobility, and stretches for the rhomboids/mid-back muscles.

Brent Brookbush

Brent Brookbush

DPT, PT, MS, CPT, HMS, IMT

Course Description: Rhomboids

This course describes the anatomy and integrated function of the rhomboids (a.k.a. the rhomboid muscle, upper back, shoulder blade muscle). The rhomboid major originates on the spinous processes of thoracic vertebrae 2-5, and the rhomboid minor originates on the spinous processes of the cervical vertebrae 7, and thoracic vertebrae 1. The rhomboid major and minor insert on the medial border of the scapula (shoulder blade). The rhomboids are innervated by the dorsal scapular nerve and are composed of slightly more type II muscle fibers than type I muscle fibers. The rhomboid muscle crosses the scapulothoracic joint (scapula), influencing motion of the acromioclavicular joint (AC joint) and sternoclavicular joint (SC joint) during motion of the shoulder girdle. The rhomboids contribute to scapular retraction and downward rotation (functional antagonist to the serratus anterior). This course also describes the role of the rhomboid muscles in scapulothoracic arthrokinematics, fascial integration, postural dysfunction, and subsystem integration. Sports medicine professionals (personal trainers, fitness instructors, physical therapists, massage therapists, chiropractors, occupational therapists, athletic trainers, etc.) must be aware of the integrated function of the rhomboids for the detailed analysis of human movement, and the development of sophisticated exercise programs and therapeutic (rehabilitation) interventions. Further, this course is essential knowledge for future courses discussing injury prevention and physical rehabilitation (e.g. rhomboid muscle pain, upper back pain, serratus anterior inhibition, dorsal scapular nerve palsy, posture issues), the effect the rhomboids have on scapular kinematics (e.g. downward rotation in synergy with the levator scapulae and upper trapezius muscles), and rhomboid specific exercises and techniques (e.g. rhomboid muscle self-administered and static manual release techniques).

Brookbush Institute’s most recommended techniques for the Rhomboids (see videos below):

The rhomboid major and minor muscle on the posterior side of the shoulders
Caption: The rhomboid major and minor muscle on the posterior side of the shoulders

Introduction to the Rhomboids

3 sub-categories

Rhomboid Muscle Actions

1 sub-category

Fascial Integration

Postural Dysfunction and the Rhomboids

Exercises and Techniques for the Rhomboids

6 sub-categories

Bibliography

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1. Introduction

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