Lower Body Goniometric Assessment

Technique and potential restricting structures

By Brent Brookbush DPT, PT, COMT, MS, PES, CES, CSCS, H/FS


For an introduction to goniometric assessment including definitions of specific terminology, defining a “good assessment,” discussion on what goniometry measures and best use, check out: Introduction to Goniometry

A list of potential restricting structures and links to articles on techniques specific to those structures is included below.  The lists were compiled using various texts (1 – 8), clinical outcomes, and predictive models of postural dysfunction in an attempt to consider all of the muscular, articular, fascial and neural structures that may restrict each motion.


Printable PDF - Assessment Templates

Hip Internal Rotation at 90 degrees of Flexion (90/90 Hip IR) (2, 9-17)


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Hip Internal Rotation (90/90 Hip IR)

Firm End Feel

40 - 50° PROM

Fulcrum: Anterior aspect of patellaMovement Arm: Through the center of the patellar tendonStability Arm:  Parallel to the supporting surface


Muscle JointFasciaNerve

  • Sciatic Nerve
  • (Impingement of Posterior Femoral Cutaneous Nerve?)
For techniques that may improve hip internal rotation: