By Brent Brookbush, DPT, PT, COMT, MS, PES, CES, CSCS, ACSM H/FS
For a comprehensive review of unstable load and surface training:
Relative Flexibility Progression:
Relative flexibility progressions are general guidelines for exercise selection that can be used while correcting postural dysfunction/movement impairment. Individuals exhibiting signs of Upper Body Dysfunction (UBD) may reduce the chance of compensation by integrating pushing movement patterns in the following order:
- Sagittal plane press
- Horizontal plane press
- Incline Press
Back supported chest/pushing progressions places less stress on core musculature; however, standing and push-up progressions require significant ISS and AOS recruitment. As many individuals are AOS dominant it may be wise to start with back supported progressions; pushing through the floor, as if doing a bridge. Pushing through the floor may increase recruitment of the Posterior Oblique Subsystem (POS), which may be beneficial for reducing compensation and improving recruitment patterns.
Shoulder Horizontal Adduction (Horizontal Flexion)
- Prime Mover: Pectoralis major
- Synergists: Anterior deltoid
- Antagonists: Posterior deltoid
- Neutralizers: Posterior deltoid, infraspinatus, and teres minor neutralize internal rotation force created by the anterior deltoid and pectoralis major.
- Stabilizers: Rotator cuff: supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis
- Fixators: Scapular muscles, intrinsic stabilization subsystem (ISS) and anterior oblique subsystem (AOS).
Shoulder Flexion (Sagittal Plane Variations)
- Prime Mover: Anterior deltoids
- Synergists: Pectoralis major (clavicular head), coracobrachialis and biceps brachii.
- Antagonists: Latissimus dorsi, posterior deltoid, teres major, long head of triceps brachii
- Neutralizers: Posterior deltoid, infraspinatus and teres minor neutralize internal rotation force created by the prime mover and synergists. Middle deltoid may